Recitation Documentation #5 (Rudi) – HaEun Yoon


Continuing from the group research project, in this recitation, we were supposed to make a visual 3-D representation of our project on TinkerCad. Which is what I did as shown below.

There were many versions I had in mind since I wanted to alter some things about the project that was discussed during the question time when we presented our idea in front of the class. I decided to go with the photo on the left since it showed that there would be different options that could be selected on the screen.

After, I used Adobe Illustrator to trace the 3-D figure and create a poster of it. I had to trace, choose what colors to show, expand and then ungroup so that I had to change the size or the figure of the 3-D model.

Lastly, I added a logo, other photos from freepik. The photo I used on freepik was done by the user “Evening_tao/Freepik”. Since this website’s photos were free for commercial use with attribution, I wanted to credit the creator.

Below is the final result. I wanted the poster to be clean and organized since it was for educational purposes and for an academic use.

Recitation Documentation #4 (Rudi) – HaEun Yoon


For this recitation, we were supposed to create 3 types of circuits, 1st the stepper circuit, where the machine is automatically moving, 1 round clockwise and another round counterclockwise. 2nd, the same but with a motor knob attached to it so it is more interactive. The circuit is conducted as a person turns the knob to change the direction of the movement. Lastly, the 3rd circuit, which is arguably the same circuit as the two above, but combined with another person’s circuit in order to create a drawing machine. Below are more details.

Circuit 1

Materials: 1 stepper motor (42STH33-0404AC), 1 ic chip / Integrated Circuit (H-Bridge) (SN754410NE), 1 power jack, 1 power supply (12 VDC), 1 Arduino kit and the materials.

Above is the outline of the circuit.

During this exercise, we were supposed to know the direction of the H bridge by the indicating marks on it. The “U” shaped part of the H-bridge would have to be indicated for the wires to be connected together. If this process is not checked, then there is a chance that your computer might be permanently damaged.

Below is the successful trial.

Circuit 2

The Materials are the same as Circuit 1.

Circuit 2 contained the same elements as Circuit 1 but instead attached with a motor knob so that it can be turned.

Circuit 3

Materials: 2 of the final circuit 2. 2 small laser cut arms, 2 longer lasers cut arms, 1 laser cut motor holder, 3 3D printed motor coupling, 5 Paper Fastener


Question 1

I got this idea from the circuits that we were working in class. I was wondering when searching for a specific picture in Google or any type of search engine, and you don’t know what it is, it would be more efficient if the search engine could recognize the colors and the drawings done by the searcher to match them to a picture online.

Just by drawing sketches online, the program would recognize the outlines, colors and try to match them with an uploaded image already online in order for the searcher to get more information about what the picture represents.

Question 2

Waves by Daniel Palacios is a project that creates visual waves according to the type of sounds that they hear. If a viewer was to make different sounds, it would be able to catch on to the sound and project a sine wave that would be in motion. Compared to the work that we did in the recitation, it shows that it is similar since the way both projects create forms of art is the way a person would interact with it.

It would make sense that the way the artist used a sine wave refers back to the science of how sound is visible to us. The project took what was familiar to the audience and incorporate it to be visually different.

 Stepper Motor Control - one revolution

 This program drives a unipolar or bipolar stepper motor.
 The motor is attached to digital pins 8 - 11 of the Arduino.

 The motor should revolve one revolution in one direction, then
 one revolution in the other direction.

 Created 11 Mar. 2007
 Modified 30 Nov. 2009
 by Tom Igoe


#include <Stepper.h>

const int stepsPerRevolution = 200;  // change this to fit the number of steps per revolution
// for your motor

// initialize the stepper library on pins 8 through 11:
Stepper myStepper(stepsPerRevolution, 8, 9, 10, 11);

void setup() {
  // set the speed at 60 rpm:
  // initialize the serial port:

void loop() {
  // step one revolution  in one direction:

  // step one revolution in the other direction:

 * MotorKnob
 * A stepper motor follows the turns of a potentiometer
 * (or other sensor) on analog input 0.
 * This example code is in the public domain.

#include <Stepper.h>

// change this to the number of steps on your motor
#define STEPS 200

// create an instance of the stepper class, specifying
// the number of steps of the motor and the pins it's
// attached to
Stepper stepper(STEPS, 8, 9, 10, 11);

// the previous reading from the analog input
int previous = 0;

void setup() {
  // set the speed of the motor to 30 RPMs

void loop() {
  // get the sensor value
  int val = analogRead(0);

  // move a number of steps equal to the change in the
  // sensor reading
  stepper.step(val - previous);

  // remember the previous value of the sensor
  previous = val;

Group Project Documentation


In order to conduct this group project, my group members and I were first assigned to reflect on the readings that we did before in order to come up with our own definition of interaction. Throughout the readings, this is what I came up with.

Interaction: A form of inputs and outputs that causes the machine or the object to be able to communicate with a person that is using it.

Interactive Projects Online

Doing some research, I used two websites to see what types of projects there were. These two caught my eye.

Uncanny Rd.

When first reading about this project, as an art student who isn’t currently continuing art, I first thought this was a great idea. By sketching online about what the roads or what real life can look like, the computer would automatically search real-life images of the streets and create a photo-like image what represents what I had in mind. Below is the example of how this project would work.

As shown on the right, the person is able to interact with the computer by drawing out images, figures of the streets, and by dragging the cursor across the page, the computer is able to picture a realistic form of what the person had in mind. However, I’ve realized by reading on, that this project also had some faults. Such drawings made by the person would not be able to be defined by the computer. This meant that there was little control over the person to get the final product. Taking an example, if I had wanted to add a vehicle on the streets, the computer might identify my drawing sketch to be something else, therefore creating an abstract image, instead of an image that I initially wanted to create. When looking over, the idea itself was really interesting, but I when planning out ideas, I would prefer to easily do by hand where I am able to visibly create and know what I will be working on.

Horror Vacui

Similar to the project I had researched above, this project dealt with the idea of transforming landscapes. By using CGI, they were able to discover how geological formations can be altered on a computer to show specific and detailed images of the geography around the world. By this technology, it can enhance the way Google Earth works, and help us to imagine the geography better around the world. By improving the specificity of the geography, we are able to look at colors, resolutions on a different scale. Below are some results.

As you can see, the resolutions in these pictures are very defined so when using it we can get a clear idea of how everything is shaped, and what the world around us looks like.

Group Research Project

After that, we have discussed further how we can create a project idea that includes the form of interaction. The assignment was to “design an interactive device which will be used in the year 2118.” We had created a prototype by using any recyclable materials such as cardboard, clothes, paper, and pens.

Our project was first thought of when we were thinking about how inconvenient the lockers in our school were. Starting from their size, and their initial purpose to store books and bags, we thought it wasn’t enough. Also, by thinking that we are in the year 2118, we tried to advance the technology and came up with different ways to improve the function of a locker.

It has the function of showing the weather forecast, your class schedule, inform you of upcoming school events, play your music playlist and etc. You would first have to activate it by your voice, calling it, “Iris”. And by pushing the screen. So in conclusion, it would have 2 types of interaction forms.

Below is what we came up with.

While producing this prototype, we wanted to make sure that this machine would be more accessible to students. Here, by creating a screen at the outside of the locker, we have found that it might be easier to access, but by putting it perhaps on the door of the locker inside, it would be much better for students to have the screen more private and more personalized for them. This product certainly contains the elements that I defined what interaction would be with different forms of inputs and outputs.

Recitation Documentation #3 (Rudi) – HaEun Yoon


During this recitation, we had the time to experiment with the different sensors. I have used the two sensors – Ultrasonic Ranger Circuit and the 3-Axis Analog Accelerometer.

Ultrasonic Ranger Circuit

Materials: 1 Arduino, 1 breadboard, 5 wires, 1 HC-SR04

  • Connecting the GND to the 5V power and the Vcc to the GND. The computer detected and the Arduino showed that there was an error with the uploading. When connected back together, the Arduino worked fine and it was detecting distance.
  • We had to link the Trig and Echo together and connect it to the 7 Digital Pin, which meant that we had to use the breadboard to connect the Trig and Echo wires to one wire so that the two can be linked to the 7 Digital Pin.

3-Axis Analog Accelerometer

Materials: 1 Arduino, 1 breadboard, 5 wires, 1 3-Axis Accelerometer



1 – In this recitation exercise, we were experimenting with different types of sensors. These sensors are directly linked to how it can be used in our daily lives. The sensors often are measuring something or are showing us something due to an action from a person. One example of this is perhaps the ultrasonic ranger where it would send of radiations which would detect how far a certain object is.

2 – The Ultrasonic Ranger Circuit is a device that can be used in vehicles such as cars which will detect how far a wall or an obstruction is located in order to prohibit your car from an accident. This daily interaction with the machine is essential since it can help avoid deadly accidents.

3 – A code is read in order to see what is the next step. It marks how you start and end the machine. Just like a recipe or a tutorial it guides the machine to do whatever it was designed to do.

4 – The text explains how media is changing due to the influence of computers. This is true and is showing in our daily lives today. The explanations of how we are connecting computers to art are how we communicate as well. The new way of programming and coding shows how there is now a new form of communication. Along with the new form of communication, the new technology of AI and other forms of technologies have sparked numerous different types of artworks and creations to the field of art.


  Ping))) Sensor

  This sketch reads a PING))) ultrasonic rangefinder and returns the distance
  to the closest object in range. To do this, it sends a pulse to the sensor to
  initiate a reading, then listens for a pulse to return. The length of the
  returning pulse is proportional to the distance of the object from the sensor.

  The circuit:
    - +V connection of the PING))) attached to +5V
    - GND connection of the PING))) attached to ground
    - SIG connection of the PING))) attached to digital pin 7

  created 3 Nov 2008
  by David A. Mellis
  modified 30 Aug 2011
  by Tom Igoe

  This example code is in the public domain.

// this constant won't change. It's the pin number of the sensor's output:
const int pingPin = 7;

void setup() {
  // initialize serial communication:

void loop() {
  // establish variables for duration of the ping, and the distance result
  // in inches and centimeters:
  long duration, inches, cm;

  // The PING))) is triggered by a HIGH pulse of 2 or more microseconds.
  // Give a short LOW pulse beforehand to ensure a clean HIGH pulse:
  pinMode(pingPin, OUTPUT);
  digitalWrite(pingPin, LOW);
  digitalWrite(pingPin, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(pingPin, LOW);

  // The same pin is used to read the signal from the PING))): a HIGH pulse
  // whose duration is the time (in microseconds) from the sending of the ping
  // to the reception of its echo off of an object.
  pinMode(pingPin, INPUT);
  duration = pulseIn(pingPin, HIGH);

  // convert the time into a distance
  inches = microsecondsToInches(duration);
  cm = microsecondsToCentimeters(duration);

  Serial.print("in, ");


long microsecondsToInches(long microseconds) {
  // According to Parallax's datasheet for the PING))), there are 73.746
  // microseconds per inch (i.e. sound travels at 1130 feet per second).
  // This gives the distance travelled by the ping, outbound and return,
  // so we divide by 2 to get the distance of the obstacle.
  // See:
  return microseconds / 74 / 2;

long microsecondsToCentimeters(long microseconds) {
  // The speed of sound is 340 m/s or 29 microseconds per centimeter.
  // The ping travels out and back, so to find the distance of the object we
  // take half of the distance travelled.
  return microseconds / 29 / 2;



  Reads an Analog Devices ADXL3xx accelerometer and communicates the
  acceleration to the computer. The pins used are designed to be easily
  compatible with the breakout boards from SparkFun, available from:

  The circuit:
  - analog 0: accelerometer self test
  - analog 1: z-axis
  - analog 2: y-axis
  - analog 3: x-axis
  - analog 4: ground
  - analog 5: vcc

  created 2 Jul 2008
  by David A. Mellis
  modified 30 Aug 2011
  by Tom Igoe

  This example code is in the public domain.

// these constants describe the pins. They won't change:
const int groundpin = 18;             // analog input pin 4 -- ground
const int powerpin = 19;              // analog input pin 5 -- voltage
const int xpin = A3;                  // x-axis of the accelerometer
const int ypin = A2;                  // y-axis
const int zpin = A1;                  // z-axis (only on 3-axis models)

void setup() {
  // initialize the serial communications:

  // Provide ground and power by using the analog inputs as normal digital pins.
  // This makes it possible to directly connect the breakout board to the
  // Arduino. If you use the normal 5V and GND pins on the Arduino,
  // you can remove these lines.
  pinMode(groundpin, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(powerpin, OUTPUT);
  digitalWrite(groundpin, LOW);
  digitalWrite(powerpin, HIGH);

void loop() {
  // print the sensor values:
  // print a tab between values:
  // print a tab between values:
  // delay before next reading:

Recitation Documentation #2 (Rudi) – HaEun Yoon

Circuit 1

Materials – 1 Arduino, 1 breadboard, 3 wires, 1 resistor, 1 LED

This was a simple circuit, which was pretty easy to do since it was adjusting the LED so that it would fade. Below is the circuit.


Circuit 2

Materials – 1 Arduino, 1 breadboard, 2 wires, 1 speaker

This circuit was also pretty simple. The goal was to connect the speaker to the Arduino and make it produce sound. Below is the circuit.

Circuit 3

Materials – 1 Arduino, 5 pushbuttons, 4 different LED, 9 resistors, 1 speaker


Question 1: In our daily lives, there are many interaction technologies such as elevators, automatic doors. All these technologies require some sort of action, often times an action in order to complete a goal. Such as pushing a button on an elevator is an interaction that you make with the technology to get to a specific goal, in this case perhaps going down a floor.

Question 2: Inputs would be the battery of the energy. The outputs would be the sound, the LED producing light.

Question 3: In concerts, many times there are light sticks which may be the 100000 LEDs. You might connect them to a Bluetooth of some sort so that when put all together, it may change colors together and create a performance with the LEDs.

Question 4: Our daily lives are constructed of constant interactions with something. Either technology or just people. This interaction could be simply defined as communication. Now as our world shifts to the generation of AI or more advanced forms of communications there is a constant creation of multiple different languages, coding, the language that we speak orally etc. The audience that this communication will differ, since we may think of communicating with people, now we can open up the audience and also include the computers which would be a form of interaction as well.


  This example shows how to fade an LED on pin 9 using the analogWrite()

  The analogWrite() function uses PWM, so if you want to change the pin you're
  using, be sure to use another PWM capable pin. On most Arduino, the PWM pins
  are identified with a "~" sign, like ~3, ~5, ~6, ~9, ~10 and ~11.

  This example code is in the public domain.

int led = 9;           // the PWM pin the LED is attached to
int brightness = 0;    // how bright the LED is
int fadeAmount = 5;    // how many points to fade the LED by

// the setup routine runs once when you press reset:
void setup() {
  // declare pin 9 to be an output:
  pinMode(led, OUTPUT);

// the loop routine runs over and over again forever:
void loop() {
  // set the brightness of pin 9:
  analogWrite(led, brightness);

  // change the brightness for next time through the loop:
  brightness = brightness + fadeAmount;

  // reverse the direction of the fading at the ends of the fade:
  if (brightness <= 0 || brightness >= 255) {
    fadeAmount = -fadeAmount;
  // wait for 30 milliseconds to see the dimming effect

/* ************************************ */


  Plays a melody

  - 8 ohm speaker on digital pin 8

  created 21 Jan 2010
  modified 30 Aug 2011
  by Tom Igoe

  This example code is in the public domain.

#include "pitches.h"

// notes in the melody:
int melody[] = {

// note durations: 4 = quarter note, 8 = eighth note, etc.:
int noteDurations[] = {
  4, 8, 8, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4

void setup() {
  // iterate over the notes of the melody:
  for (int thisNote = 0; thisNote < 8; thisNote++) {

    // to calculate the note duration, take one second divided by the note type.
    //e.g. quarter note = 1000 / 4, eighth note = 1000/8, etc.
    int noteDuration = 1000 / noteDurations[thisNote];
    tone(8, melody[thisNote], noteDuration);

    // to distinguish the notes, set a minimum time between them.
    // the note's duration + 30% seems to work well:
    int pauseBetweenNotes = noteDuration * 1.30;
    // stop the tone playing:

void loop() {
  // no need to repeat the melody.

/* ************************************ */

Recitation Documentation #1 (Rudi) – HaEun Yoon

Circuit 1 (Door Bell) –

  • 1 breadboard – this is the base of the circuit, the holes on the board allow electric currents to flow. Organized into rows and columns, it allows the wires and other components to flow and connect together.
  • 1 voltage regulator – Allows a specific amount of voltage to flow through the circuit. We used it so we can lower the amount of voltage used.
  • 1 capacitator – They store electricity and release when the circuit needs more energy to generate the circuit. Either higher in voltage or to increase voltage.
  • 1 switch – Either turns on or turns off the LED/speaker in our case by connecting or disconnecting the electricity within the circuit.
  • 1 speaker – produce sound in order to show that the circuit is fully linked.

The circuit did work. We have failed to complete the whole circuit sometimes due to the lack of understanding of the breadboard. While the power was attached to the breadboard, partner and I didn’t understand how the electricity was connected to the board. But a professor showed us the back side of the breadboard without the back cover, where we could see where the electricity is linked together either vertically or horizontally. It was the fault of how wires were connected sometimes horizontally to connect but were supposed to be vertically connected in order for the current to flow.

Circuit 2 (Lamp) – 

  • 1 breadboard – (read above)
  • 1 voltage regulator – (read above)
  • 1 resistor – an electrical component that decreases the flow of the electricity within the circuit. The stripes on the resistors show the resistance of electricity.
  • 1 LED – Light-emitting diode. A visible indicator that presents light.
  • 1 switch – (read above)
  • 1 capacitator – (read above)

The circuit also worked as well. We had added a resistor, and by doing so, we are able to use the specified amount of voltage that we need in order to light up the LED. There was a bit of confusion about where the ground is and how we connect it to the capacitator and the voltage regulator, but by keeping in mind the breadboard structure we were able to connect the wires in order for the ground to be connected to the capacitator and the variable regulator.

Circuit 3 (Dimmable Lamp) – 

  • 1 breadboard – (read above)
  • 1 variable resistor – Able to adjust the voltage of the circuit.
  • 1 voltage regulator – (read above)
  • 1 capacitator – (read above)
  • 1 LED – (read above)
  • 1 switch – (read above)

The circuit worked. For this to happen, we were able to solder the new type of button for this circuit. We learned how to melt the wire in order for electric current to flow, and by melting the wire, we are able to let the electric current pass through. With the variable resistor linked to the resistor and the LED, we are able to turn the knob of the variable resistor and allow the change of the resistance in order for the light to be dimmer or to be lit up.

Question 1:

I do think this activity included interactivity. Either by working with your partner to create the circuit, there was a series of reaction and action taking place in order to complete the task. But when thinking about the action taking place in order to light up an LED, or to make the speaker work, only with a press of a button from one person makes the circuit successful and complete. The action can be done by one individual, and only that person him/herself which does not make it an interactive activity.

Question 2:

By Zack Lieberman’s work, the live interaction with the audience, and the way he is able to incorporate the audience to perform the art is an example of how his designs and the way he used physical movements is a form of art. The way how the audience can easily create their own pieces of art by physically drawing and using his technology shows that it is another art piece created. The project “drawn” shows how Zack Lieberman himself communicates with the audience and interact with them by letting them create their own pieces by using his technology which produces more forms of art.